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Citus Blog

Articles tagged: multi-tenant

Claire Giordano

When to use Hyperscale (Citus) to scale out Postgres

Written byBy Claire Giordano | December 5, 2020Dec 5, 2020

If you’ve built your application on Postgres, you already know why so many people love Postgres.

And if you’re new to Postgres, the list of reasons people love Postgres is loooong—and includes things like: 3 decades of database reliability baked in; rich datatypes; support for custom types; myriad index types from B-tree to GIN to BRIN to GiST; support for JSON and JSONB from early days; constraints; foreign data wrappers; rollups; the geospatial capabilities of the PostGIS extension, and all the innovations that come from the many Postgres extensions.

But what to do if your Postgres database gets very large?

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Marco Slot

Making Postgres stored procedures 9X faster in Citus

Written byBy Marco Slot | November 21, 2020Nov 21, 2020

Stored procedures are widely used in commercial relational databases. You write most of your application logic in PL/SQL and achieve notable performance gains by pushing this logic into the database. As a result, customers who are looking to migrate from other databases to PostgreSQL usually make heavy use of stored procedures.

When migrating from a large database, using the Citus extension to distribute your database can be an attractive option, because you will always have enough hardware capacity to power your workload. The Hyperscale (Citus) option in Azure Database for PostgreSQL makes it easy to get a managed Citus cluster in minutes.

In the past, customers who migrated stored procedures to Citus often reported poor performance because each statement in the procedure involved an extra network round trip between the Citus coordinator node and the worker nodes. We also observed this ourselves when we evaluated Citus performance using the TPC-C-based workload in HammerDB (TPROC-C), which is implemented using stored procedures.

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Ozgun Erdogan

Citus 7.5: The right way to scale SaaS apps

Written byBy Ozgun Erdogan | August 3, 2018Aug 3, 2018

One of the primary challenges with scaling SaaS applications is the database. While you can easily scale your application by adding more servers, scaling your database is a way harder problem. This is particularly true if your application benefits from relational database features, such as transactions, table joins, and database constraints.

At Citus, we make scaling your database easy. Over the past year, we added support for distributed transactions, made Rails and Django integration seamless, and expanded on our SQL support. We also documented approaches to scaling your SaaS database to thousands of customers.

Today, we’re excited to announce the latest release of our distributed database—Citus 7.5. With this release, we’re adding key features that make scaling your SaaS / multi-tenant database easier. If you’re into bulleted lists, these features include the following.

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Postgres keeps getting better and better. In recent years, the Postgres community has added JSONB support, improved performance, and added so many usability enhancements. The result: you can work even more powerfully with your database. Over the past 8 years, my favorite two enhancements have been JSONB and pg_stat_statements. Pg_stat_statements is a built-in extension that allows you to get high level insights into queries that are being run as well as their performance—without having to be an expert and without needing a PhD in databases.

Introducing the new landlord feature in Citus 7.5

With Citus 7.5, we’ve gone one step beyond the awesomeness of pg_stat_statements and Postgres, with the new landlord feature in Citus—to give you per-tenant stats.

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Craig Kerstiens

Options for scaling from 1 to 100,000 tenants

Written byBy Craig Kerstiens | June 28, 2018Jun 28, 2018

When you first start out in building a SaaS application you talk about that day in the future when you will have scaling problems, how that’ll be the day, how that would be a good problem to have. You focus on getting the first few customers, making sure they have a great experience, and suddenly you’re at 10s of customers, then 100s. You’ve upgraded your app server to a larger one, then you’ve gone from one ec2 app server to multiple ones with ELB in front of things. You’ve upgraded your Postgres database from an r3.large on AWS, to r3.xlarge, now you’re eyeing that r3.2xlarge next month. In the back of your mind though, you’re starting to look at your plans for future growth of your SaaS app, and you’re wondering how much larger you can keep going. Your database is performing well at 100 tenants (tenants = customers), your back of the napkin math says you’ll be able to scale your app up to 1,000 tenants, but after that you know you’re going to have to explore some options.

What are those options and what are the trade-offs and benefits?

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Craig Kerstiens

Preparing your multi-tenant app for scale

Written byBy Craig Kerstiens | May 22, 2018May 22, 2018

We spend a lot of time with companies that are growing fast, or planning for future growth. It may be you’ve built your product and are now just trying to keep the system growing and scaling to handle new users and revenue. Or you may be still building the product, but know that an even moderate level of success could lead to a lot of scaling. In either case where you spend your time is key in order to not lose valuable time.

As Donald Knuth states it in Computer Programming as an Art:

“Programmers waste enormous amounts of time thinking about, or worrying about, the speed of noncritical parts of their programs, and these attempts at efficiency actually have a strong negative impact when debugging and maintenance are considered. We should forget about small efficiencies, say about 97% of the time: premature optimization is the root of all evil. Yet we should not pass up our opportunities in that critical 3%.”

With the above in mind one of the most common questions we get is: What do I need to do now to make sure I can scale my multi-tenant application later?

We’ve written some before about approaches not to take such as schema based sharding or one database per customer and the trade-offs that come with that approach. Here we’ll dig into three key steps you should take that won’t be wasted effort should the need to scale occur.

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Craig Kerstiens

Citus Data internal hackathon roundup

Written byBy Craig Kerstiens | March 26, 2018Mar 26, 2018

At Citus Data, we regularly get the team together, because even with an engineering team that is distributed around the globe, face-to-face time is valuable to connecting and collaborating. During our team offsites, we often organize engineering hackathons to proof out new ideas, learn new things, or just for fun. We recently completed one of our Citus hackathons and thought we’d share some of what we built.

The theme of our hackathon this time was on building the ultimate dashboard for our Citus extension to Postgres. For Postgres, there are lots of options out there for capturing and displaying insights into your database. You could use New Relic, Vivid Cortex, or something entirely open source like pghero. But we wanted to explore the question, what more could we provide?

Our two teams took two very different approaches, but each emerged with something interesting that we hope to continue to build on and productize in the future. In case you’re curious, here’s a look at each of the projects from our hackday:

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Joe Kutner

Using Hibernate and Spring to Build Multi-Tenant Java Apps

Written byBy Joe Kutner | February 13, 2018Feb 13, 2018

If you’re building a Java app, there’s a good chance you’re using Hibernate. The Hibernate ORM is a nearly ubiquitous choice for Java developers who need to interact with a relational database. It’s mature, widely supported, and feature rich—as demonstrated by its support for multi tenant applications.

Hibernate officially supports two different multi-tenancy mechanisms: separate database and separate schema. Unfortunately, both of these mechanisms come with some downsides in terms of scaling. A third Hibernate multi-tenancy mechanism, a tenant discriminator, also exists, and it’s usable—but it’s still considered a work-in-progress by some. Unlike the separate database and separate schema approaches, which require distinct database connections for each tenant, Hibernate’s tenant discriminator model stores tenant data in a single database and partitions records with either a simple column value or a complex SQL formula.

But fear not, despite the unfinished state of Hibernate’s built-in support for a tenant discriminator (or in simple terms tenant_id), it’s possible to implement your own discriminator using standard Spring, Hibernate, and AspectJ mechanisms that work quite well. The Hibernate tenant discriminator model works well as you start small on a single-node Postgres database, and even better, tenant discriminator can continue to scale as your data grows by leveraging the Citus extension to Postgres.

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Nate Barbettini

Multi-tenant web apps with ASP.NET Core and Postgres

Written byBy Nate Barbettini | January 22, 2018Jan 22, 2018

When it comes to building large-scale, multi-tenant applications, Microsoft’s ASP.NET platform is a strong choice. Like other popular web frameworks such as Express and Django, ASP.NET is used to build web applications and APIs. It’s been around for a while, but don’t let that fool you: ASP.NET packs some serious muscle. After all, it powers one of the biggest Q&A networks on the web: Stack Exchange!

In the past, ASP.NET apps could only run on Windows servers. That’s changed with the latest version, ASP.NET Core, which is fully open source and cross-platform. ASP.NET Core runs anywhere you need it to (Windows, Mac, Linux, Docker) and features a modern middleware pipeline, a rich package ecosystem, and blazing-fast performance.

My experience working on multi-tenant enterprise apps has taught me that it’s never too early to design for scale. How you architect your code matters, as does how you architect your data. In the past, the apps I worked on were designed around a database-per-tenant model—unfortunately, the database-per-tenant model didn’t scale and caused problems once our app reached thousands of customers (aka tenants). In this post, I’ll show you a different approach to scale the underlying database with ASP.NET: sharding. With sharding you can leave behind the drawbacks of the database-per-tenant model and can scale infinitely.

In this blog post, I’ll show you how to build your multi-tenant app with scale in mind. You’ll learn how to use ASP.NET Core’s middleware pipeline plus the sharding features of Postgres and Citus to build a scalable multi-tenant application on ASP.NET Core. Along the way we’ll start to build the MVP of our very own StackExchange. Let’s get started!

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Claire Giordano

A Flywheel for SaaS Databases ft. Postgres and Citus

Written byBy Claire Giordano | November 21, 2017Nov 21, 2017

What happens to your database when your SaaS application is an overnight success? When your customer base has grown bigger than you’d always hoped but it all happened so fast and now what do you do? What happens when your SaaS application needs to scale, but your database is getting more and more sluggish?

Until recently, the conventional wisdom for SaaS startups is that you should launch your application on top of an open source relational database, like Postgres or MySQL. And that once you become an overnight success, you will need to slog your way through a period of fail whales while you re-architect your app to go to NoSQL. Or while you re-architect your app to shard at the application layer. Ick.

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