Citus Blog

Articles tagged: distributed Postgres

Marco Slot

Citus 11.1 shards your Postgres tables without interruption

Written byBy Marco Slot | September 19, 2022Sep 19, 2022

Citus is a distributed database that is built entirely as an open source PostgreSQL extension. In fact, you can install it in your PostgreSQL server without changing any PostgreSQL functionality. Citus simply gives PostgreSQL additional superpowers.

Being an extension also means we can keep adding new Postgres superpowers at a high pace. In the last release (11.0), we focused on giving you the ability to query from any node, opening up Citus for many new use cases, and we also made Citus fully open source. That means you can see everything we do on the Citus GitHub page (and star the repo if you’re a fan 😊). It also means that everyone can take advantage of shard rebalancing without write-downtime.

In the latest release (11.1), our Citus database team at Microsoft improved the application’s experience and avoided blocking writes during important operations like distributing tables and tenant isolation. These new capabilities built on the experience gained from developing the shard rebalancer, which uses logical replication to avoid blocking writes. In addition, we made the shard rebalancer faster and more user-friendly; also, we prepared for the upcoming PostgreSQL 15 release. This post gives you a quick tour of the major changes in Citus 11.1, including:

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We released Citus 11 in the previous weeks and it is packed. Citus went full open source, so now previously enterprise features like the non-blocking aspect of the shard rebalancer—and multi-user support—are all open source for everyone to enjoy. One other huge change in Citus 11 is now you can query your distributed Postgres tables from any Citus node, by default.

When using Citus to distribute Postgres before Citus 11, the coordinator node was your application’s only point of contact. Your application needed to connect to the coordinator to query your distributed Postgres tables. Coordinator node can handle high query throughput, about 100K per second but your application might need even more processing power. Thanks to our work in Citus 11 you can now query from any node in the Citus database cluster you want. In Citus 11 we sync the metadata to all nodes by default, so you can connect to any node and run queries on your tables.

Running queries from any node is awesome but you also need to be able to monitor and manage your queries from any node. Before, when you only connected the coordinator, using Postgres’ monitoring tools was enough but this is not the case anymore. So in Citus 11 we added some ways to observe your queries similar to you would do in a single Postgres instance.

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Claire Giordano

UK COVID-19 dashboard built using Postgres and Citus for millions of users

Written byBy Claire Giordano & Pouria Hadjibagheri | December 11, 2021Dec 11, 2021

From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the United Kingdom (UK) government has made it a top priority to track key health metrics and to share those metrics with the public.

And the citizens of the UK were hungry for information, as they tried to make sense of what was happening. Maps, graphs, and tables became the lingua franca of the pandemic. As a result, the GOV.UK Coronavirus dashboard became one of the most visited public service websites in the United Kingdom.

The list of people who rely on the UK Coronavirus dashboard is quite long: government personnel, public health officials, healthcare employees, journalists, and the public all use the same service.

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Onder Kalaci

What’s new in the Citus 10.2 extension to Postgres

Written byBy Onder Kalaci | September 17, 2021Sep 17, 2021

Citus 10.2 is out! If you are not yet familiar with Citus, it is an open source extension to Postgres that transforms Postgres into a distributed database—so you can achieve high performance at any scale. The Citus open source packages are available for download. And Citus is also available in the cloud as a managed service, too.

You can see a bulleted list of all the changes in the CHANGELOG on GitHub. This post is your guide to what’s new in Citus 10.2, including some of these headline features.

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Jelte Fennema

Shard rebalancing in the Citus 10.1 extension to Postgres

Written byBy Jelte Fennema | September 3, 2021Sep 3, 2021

With the 10.1 release to the Citus extension to Postgres, you can now monitor the progress of an ongoing shard rebalance—plus you get performance optimizations, as well as some user experience improvements to the rebalancer, too.

Whether you use Citus open source to scale out Postgres, or you use Citus in the cloud, this post is your guide to what’s new with the shard rebalancer in Citus 10.1.

And if you’re wondering when you might need to use the shard rebalancer: the rebalancer is used when you add a new Postgres node to your existing Citus database cluster and you want to move some of the old data to this new node, to “balance” the cluster. There are also times you might want to balance shards across nodes in a Citus cluster in order to optimize performance. A common example of this is when you have a SaaS application and one of your customers/tenants has significant more activity than the rest.

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Citus 10.1 is out! In this latest release to the Citus extension to Postgres, our team focused on improving your user experience. Some of the 10.1 fixes are operational improvements—such as with the shard rebalancer, or with citus_update_node. Some are performance improvements—such as for multi-row INSERTs or with citus_shards. And some are fixes you’ll appreciate if you use Citus with lots of Postgres partitions.

Given that the previous Citus 10 release included a bevy of new features—including things like columnar storage, Citus on a single node, open sourcing the shard rebalancer, new UDFs so you can alter distributed table properties, and the ability to combine Postgres and Citus tables via support for JOINs between local and distributed tables, and foreign keys between local and reference tables—well, we felt that Citus 10.1 needed to prioritize some of our backlog items, the kinds of things that can make your life easier.

This post is your guide to the what’s new in Citus 10.1. And if you want to catch up on all the new things in past releases to Citus, check out the release notes posts about Citus 10, Citus 9.5, Citus 9.4, Citus 9.3, and Citus 9.2.

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If you have a large PostgreSQL database that runs on a single node, eventually the single node’s resources—such as memory, CPU, and disk—may deliver query responses that are too slow. That is when you may want to use the Citus extension to Postgres to distribute your tables across a cluster of Postgres nodes.

In your large database, Citus will shine for large tables, since the distributed Citus tables will benefit from the memory across all of the nodes in the cluster. But what if your Postgres database also contains some small tables which easily fit into a single node’s memory? You might be wondering: do you need to distribute these smaller tables, even though there wouldn’t be much performance gain from distributing them?

Fortunately, as of the Citus 10 release, you do not have to choose: you can distribute your large tables across a Citus cluster and continue using your smaller tables as local Postgres tables on the Citus coordinator.

One of the new features in Citus 10 that enables you to use a hybrid “local+distributed” Postgres database is that you can now JOIN local tables and distributed tables. (The other new Citus 10 feature has to do with foreign keys between local and reference tables.)

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One of the main reasons people use Citus to transform Postgres into a distributed database is that with Citus, you can scale out horizontally while still enjoying PostgreSQL’s great RDBMS features. Whether you’re already a Postgres expert or are new to Postgres, you probably know one of the benefits of using a relational database is to have relations between your tables. And one of the ways you can relate your tables is of course to use foreign keys.

A foreign key ensures referential integrity, which can help you to avoid bugs in applications. For example, a foreign key can be used to ensure that a table of “orders” can only reference customer IDs that exist in the “customers” table.

If you have already heard about Citus 10, you know that Citus 10 gives you more support for hybrid data models, which means that you can easily combine regular Postgres tables with distributed Citus tables to get the best of the single node and distributed Postgres worlds.

This post will walk you through one of the new features in Citus 10: support for foreign keys between local Postgres tables and Citus reference tables.

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Citus is an extension to Postgres that lets you distribute your application’s workload across multiple nodes. Whether you are using Citus open source or using Citus as part of a managed Postgres service in the cloud, one of the first things you do when you start using Citus is to distribute your tables. While distributing your Postgres tables you need to decide on some properties such as distribution column, shard count, colocation. And even before you decide on your distribution column (sometimes called a distribution key, or a sharding key), when you create a Postgres table, your table is created with an access method.

Previously you had to decide on these table properties up front, and then you went with your decision. Or if you really wanted to change your decision, you needed to start over. The good news is that in Citus 10, we introduced 2 new user-defined functions (UDFs) to make it easier for you to make changes to your distributed Postgres tables.

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Marco Slot

Citus Talk at CMU: Distributed PostgreSQL as an Extension

Written byBy Marco Slot | April 10, 2021Apr 10, 2021

Last month we released Citus 10 and we’ve received an overwhelming amount of positive feedback on the new columnar compression and single node Citus features, as well as the news that we’ve open sourced the shard rebalancer.

The new and exciting Citus 10 features are bringing in lots of new users of Citus open source and the managed Hyperscale (Citus) option in Azure Database for PostgreSQL. And many of you are asking:

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