Citus 10.2 is out! 10.2 brings you new columnar & time series features—and is ready to support Postgres 14. Read the new Citus 10.2 blog.

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Articles tagged: performance

Today, we are excited to announce PostgreSQL 14’s General Availability (GA) on Azure’s Hyperscale (Citus) option. To our knowledge, this is the first time a major cloud provider has announced GA for a new Postgres major version on their platform one day after the official release.

Starting today, you can deploy Postgres 14 in many Hyperscale (Citus) regions. In upcoming months, we will roll out Postgres 14 across more Azure regions and also release it with our new Flexible Server option in Azure Database for PostgreSQL.

This announcement helps us bring the latest in Postgres to Azure customers as new features become available. Further, it shows our commitment to open source PostgreSQL and its ecosystem. We choose to extend Postgres and share our contributions, instead of creating and managing a proprietary fork on the cloud.

In this blog post, you’ll first get a glimpse into some of our favorite features in Postgres 14. These include connection scaling, faster VACUUM, and improvements to crash recovery times.

We’ll then describe the work involved in making Postgres extensions compatible with new major Postgres versions, including our distributed database Citus as well as other extensions such as HyperLogLog (HLL), pg_cron, and TopN. Finally, you’ll learn how packaging, testing, and deployments work on Hyperscale (Citus). This last part ties everything together and enables us to release new versions on Azure, with speed.

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Onder Kalaci

What’s new in the Citus 10.2 extension to Postgres

Written byBy Onder Kalaci | September 17, 2021Sep 17, 2021

Citus 10.2 is out! If you are not yet familiar with Citus, it is an open source extension to Postgres that transforms Postgres into a distributed database—so you can achieve high performance at any scale. The Citus open source packages are available for download. And Citus is also available in the cloud as a managed service, too.

You can see a bulleted list of all the changes in the CHANGELOG on GitHub. This post is your guide to what’s new in Citus 10.2, including some of these headline features.

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Jelte Fennema

Shard rebalancing in the Citus 10.1 extension to Postgres

Written byBy Jelte Fennema | September 3, 2021Sep 3, 2021

With the 10.1 release to the Citus extension to Postgres, you can now monitor the progress of an ongoing shard rebalance—plus you get performance optimizations, as well as some user experience improvements to the rebalancer, too.

Whether you use Citus open source to scale out Postgres, or you use Citus in the cloud, this post is your guide to what’s new with the shard rebalancer in Citus 10.1.

And if you’re wondering when you might need to use the shard rebalancer: the rebalancer is used when you add a new Postgres node to your existing Citus database cluster and you want to move some of the old data to this new node, to “balance” the cluster. There are also times you might want to balance shards across nodes in a Citus cluster in order to optimize performance. A common example of this is when you have a SaaS application and one of your customers/tenants has significant more activity than the rest.

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Citus 10.1 is out! In this latest release to the Citus extension to Postgres, our team focused on improving your user experience. Some of the 10.1 fixes are operational improvements—such as with the shard rebalancer, or with citus_update_node. Some are performance improvements—such as for multi-row INSERTs or with citus_shards. And some are fixes you’ll appreciate if you use Citus with lots of Postgres partitions.

Given that the previous Citus 10 release included a bevy of new features—including things like columnar storage, Citus on a single node, open sourcing the shard rebalancer, new UDFs so you can alter distributed table properties, and the ability to combine Postgres and Citus tables via support for JOINs between local and distributed tables, and foreign keys between local and reference tables—well, we felt that Citus 10.1 needed to prioritize some of our backlog items, the kinds of things that can make your life easier.

This post is your guide to the what’s new in Citus 10.1. And if you want to catch up on all the new things in past releases to Citus, check out the release notes posts about Citus 10, Citus 9.5, Citus 9.4, Citus 9.3, and Citus 9.2.

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David Rowley

Speeding up recovery & VACUUM in Postgres 14

Written byBy David Rowley | March 25, 2021Mar 25, 2021

One of the performance projects I’ve focused on in PostgreSQL 14 is speeding up PostgreSQL recovery and vacuum. In the PostgreSQL team at Microsoft, I spend most of my time working with other members of the community on the PostgreSQL open source project. And in Postgres 14 (due to release in Q3 of 2021), I committed a change to optimize the compactify_tuples function, to reduce CPU utilization in the PostgreSQL recovery process. This performance optimization in PostgreSQL 14 made our crash recovery test case about 2.4x faster.

The compactify_tuples function is used internally in PostgreSQL:

  • when PostgreSQL starts up after a non-clean shutdown—called crash recovery
  • by the recovery process that is used by physical standby servers to replay changes (as described in the write-ahead log) as they arrive from the primary server
  • by VACUUM

So the good news is that the improvements to compactify_tuples will: improve crash recovery performance; reduce the load on the standby server, allowing it to replay the write-ahead log from the primary server more quickly; and improve VACUUM performance.

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One of the main reasons people use the Citus extension for Postgres is to distribute the data in Postgres tables across multiple nodes. Citus does this by splitting the original Postgres table into multiple smaller tables and putting these smaller tables on different nodes. The process of splitting bigger tables into smaller ones is called sharding—and these smaller Postgres tables are called “shards”. Citus then allows you to query the shards as if they were still a single Postgres table.

One of the big changes in Citus 10—in addition to adding columnar storage, and the new ability to shard Postgres on a single Citus node—is that we open sourced the shard rebalancer.

Yes, that’s right, we have open sourced the shard rebalancer! The Citus 10 shard rebalancer gives you an easy way to rebalance shards across your cluster and helps you avoid data hotspots over time. Let’s dig into the what and the how.

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Jeff Davis

Citus 10 brings columnar compression to Postgres

Written byBy Jeff Davis | March 6, 2021Mar 6, 2021

Citus 10 is out! Check out the Citus 10 blog post for all the details. Citus is an open source extension to Postgres (not a fork) that enables scale-out, but offers other great features, too. See the Citus docs and the Citus github repo and README.

This post will highlight Citus Columnar, one of the big new features in Citus 10. You can also take a look at the columnar documentation. Citus Columnar can be used with or without the scale-out features of Citus.

Postgres typically stores data using the heap access method, which is row-based storage. Row-based tables are good for transactional workloads, but can cause excessive IO for some analytic queries.

Columnar storage is a new way to store data in a Postgres table. Columnar groups data together by column instead of by row; and compresses the data, too. Arranging data by column tends to compress well, and it also means that queries can skip over columns they don’t need. Columnar dramatically reduces the IO needed to answer a typical analytic query—often by 10X!

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Sai Krishna Srirampur

Faster data migrations in Postgres

Written byBy Sai Srirampur | February 20, 2021Feb 20, 2021

In my day to day, I get to work with many customers migrating their data to Postgres. I work with customers migrating from homogenous sources (PostgreSQL) and also from heterogenous database sources such as Oracle and Redshift. Why do people pick Postgres? Because of the richness of PostgreSQL—and features like stored procedures, JSONB, PostGIS for geospatial workloads, and the many useful Postgres extensions, including my personal favorite: Citus.

A large chunk of the migrations that I help people with are homogenous Postgres-to-Postgres data migrations to the cloud. As Azure Database for PostgreSQL runs open source Postgres, in many cases the application migration can be drop-in and doesn’t require a ton effort. The majority of the effort usually goes into deciding on and implementing the right strategy for performing the data migration.

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Marco Slot

Making Postgres stored procedures 9X faster in Citus

Written byBy Marco Slot | November 21, 2020Nov 21, 2020

Stored procedures are widely used in commercial relational databases. You write most of your application logic in PL/SQL and achieve notable performance gains by pushing this logic into the database. As a result, customers who are looking to migrate from other databases to PostgreSQL usually make heavy use of stored procedures.

When migrating from a large database, using the Citus extension to distribute your database can be an attractive option, because you will always have enough hardware capacity to power your workload. The Hyperscale (Citus) option in Azure Database for PostgreSQL makes it easy to get a managed Citus cluster in minutes.

In the past, customers who migrated stored procedures to Citus often reported poor performance because each statement in the procedure involved an extra network round trip between the Citus coordinator node and the worker nodes. We also observed this ourselves when we evaluated Citus performance using the TPC-C-based workload in HammerDB (TPROC-C), which is implemented using stored procedures.

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In my work as an engineer on the Postgres team at Microsoft, I get to meet all sorts of customers going through many challenging projects. One recent database migration project I worked on is a story that just needs to be told. The customer—in the retail space—was using Redshift as the data warehouse and Databricks as their ETL engine. Their setup was deployed on AWS and GCP, across different data centers in different regions. And they’d been running into performance bottlenecks and also was incurring unnecessary egress cost.

Specifically, the amount of data in our customer’s analytic store was growing faster than the compute required to process that data. AWS Redshift was not able to offer independent scaling of storage and compute—hence our customer was paying extra cost by being forced to scale up the Redshift nodes to account for growing data volumes. To address these issues, they decided to migrate their analytics landscape to Azure.

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