Citus Blog

Articles tagged: shard rebalancer

Marco Slot

Citus 11.1 shards your Postgres tables without interruption

Written byBy Marco Slot | September 19, 2022Sep 19, 2022

Citus is a distributed database that is built entirely as an open source PostgreSQL extension. In fact, you can install it in your PostgreSQL server without changing any PostgreSQL functionality. Citus simply gives PostgreSQL additional superpowers.

Being an extension also means we can keep adding new Postgres superpowers at a high pace. In the last release (11.0), we focused on giving you the ability to query from any node, opening up Citus for many new use cases, and we also made Citus fully open source. That means you can see everything we do on the Citus GitHub page (and star the repo if you’re a fan 😊). It also means that everyone can take advantage of shard rebalancing without write-downtime.

In the latest release (11.1), our Citus database team at Microsoft improved the application’s experience and avoided blocking writes during important operations like distributing tables and tenant isolation. These new capabilities built on the experience gained from developing the shard rebalancer, which uses logical replication to avoid blocking writes. In addition, we made the shard rebalancer faster and more user-friendly; also, we prepared for the upcoming PostgreSQL 15 release. This post gives you a quick tour of the major changes in Citus 11.1, including:

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A few months ago we made Citus fully open source. This was a very exciting milestone for all of us on the Citus database engine team. Contrary to folks who say that Postgres is a monolith that can’t scale—Postgres in fact has a fully open source solution for distributed scale, one that’s also native to Postgres. It’s called Citus! This post will go into more detail on why we open sourced our few remaining enterprise features in Citus 11, what exactly we open sourced, and finally what it took to actually open source our code. If you’re more interested in the code instead, you can find it in our GitHub repo (feel free to give the Citus project a star.)

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Citus 11.0 is here! Citus is a PostgreSQL extension that adds distributed database superpowers to PostgreSQL. With Citus, you can create tables that are transparently distributed or replicated across a cluster of PostgreSQL nodes. Citus 11.0 is a new major release, which means that it comes with some very exciting new features that enable new levels of scalability.

The biggest enhancement in Citus 11.0 is that you can now always run distributed queries from any node in the cluster because the schema & metadata are automatically synchronized. We already shared some of the details in the Citus 11.0 beta blog post, but we also have big surprise for those of you who use Citus open source that was not part of the initial beta.

When we do a new Citus release, we usually release 2 versions: The open source version and the enterprise release which includes a few extra features. However, there will be only one version of Citus 11.0, because everything in the Citus extension is now fully open source!

That means that you can now rebalance shards without blocking writes, manage roles across the cluster, isolate tenants to their own shards, and more. All this comes on top of the already massive enhancement in Citus 11.0: You can query your Citus cluster from any node, creating a truly distributed PostgreSQL experience.

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Jelte Fennema

Shard rebalancing in the Citus 10.1 extension to Postgres

Written byBy Jelte Fennema | September 3, 2021Sep 3, 2021

With the 10.1 release to the Citus extension to Postgres, you can now monitor the progress of an ongoing shard rebalance—plus you get performance optimizations, as well as some user experience improvements to the rebalancer, too.

Whether you use Citus open source to scale out Postgres, or you use Citus in the cloud, this post is your guide to what’s new with the shard rebalancer in Citus 10.1.

And if you’re wondering when you might need to use the shard rebalancer: the rebalancer is used when you add a new Postgres node to your existing Citus database cluster and you want to move some of the old data to this new node, to “balance” the cluster. There are also times you might want to balance shards across nodes in a Citus cluster in order to optimize performance. A common example of this is when you have a SaaS application and one of your customers/tenants has significant more activity than the rest.

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Citus 10.1 is out! In this latest release to the Citus extension to Postgres, our team focused on improving your user experience. Some of the 10.1 fixes are operational improvements—such as with the shard rebalancer, or with citus_update_node. Some are performance improvements—such as for multi-row INSERTs or with citus_shards. And some are fixes you’ll appreciate if you use Citus with lots of Postgres partitions.

Given that the previous Citus 10 release included a bevy of new features—including things like columnar storage, Citus on a single node, open sourcing the shard rebalancer, new UDFs so you can alter distributed table properties, and the ability to combine Postgres and Citus tables via support for JOINs between local and distributed tables, and foreign keys between local and reference tables—well, we felt that Citus 10.1 needed to prioritize some of our backlog items, the kinds of things that can make your life easier.

This post is your guide to the what’s new in Citus 10.1. And if you want to catch up on all the new things in past releases to Citus, check out the release notes posts about Citus 10, Citus 9.5, Citus 9.4, Citus 9.3, and Citus 9.2.

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It’s been an eventful time for Hyperscale (Citus) lately. If you’re interested in Postgres, distributed databases, and how to handle ever growing needs for your Postgres application or simply use Hyperscale (Citus), keep reading.

Citus is an open source extension to Postgres that enables horizontal scaling of your Postgres database. Citus distributes your Postgres tables, writes, and SQL queries across multiple nodes—parallelizing your workload and enabling you to use the memory, compute, and disk of a multi-node cluster. And Citus is available on Azure: Hyperscale (Citus) is a deployment option in Azure Database for PostgreSQL.

What’s really exciting to me is that we’ve made it easier and cheaper than ever to try and use Hyperscale (Citus). With Basic tier, you can now use Hyperscale (Citus) on a single node, parallelizing your operations and adopting a distributed database model from the very beginning. And you can now try Citus open source with a single docker run command—boom!

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One of the main reasons people use the Citus extension for Postgres is to distribute the data in Postgres tables across multiple nodes. Citus does this by splitting the original Postgres table into multiple smaller tables and putting these smaller tables on different nodes. The process of splitting bigger tables into smaller ones is called sharding—and these smaller Postgres tables are called “shards”. Citus then allows you to query the shards as if they were still a single Postgres table.

One of the big changes in Citus 10—in addition to adding columnar storage, and the new ability to shard Postgres on a single Citus node—is that we open sourced the shard rebalancer.

Yes, that’s right, we have open sourced the shard rebalancer! The Citus 10 shard rebalancer gives you an easy way to rebalance shards across your cluster and helps you avoid data hotspots over time. Let’s dig into the what and the how.

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Development on Citus first started around a decade ago and once a year we release a major new Citus open source version. We wanted to make number 10 something special, but I could not have imagined how truly spectacular this release would become. Citus 10 extends Postgres (12 and 13) with many new superpowers:

  • Columnar storage for Postgres: Compress your PostgreSQL and Citus tables to reduce storage cost and speed up your analytical queries.
  • Sharding on a single Citus node: Make your single-node Postgres server ready to scale out by sharding tables locally using Citus.
  • Shard rebalancer in Citus open source: We have open sourced the shard rebalancer so you can easily add Citus nodes and rebalance your cluster.
  • Joins and foreign keys between local PostgreSQL tables and Citus tables: Mix and match PostgreSQL and Citus tables with foreign keys and joins.
  • Functions to change the way your tables are distributed: Redistribute your tables in a single step using new alter table functions.
  • Much more: Better naming, improved SQL & DDL support, simplified operations.

These new capabilities represent a fundamental shift in what Citus is and what Citus can do for you.

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Ozgun Erdogan

Citus 7.4: Move fast and reduce technical debt

Written byBy Ozgun Erdogan | May 24, 2018May 24, 2018

Today, we’re excited to announce the latest release of our distributed database, Citus 7.4! Citus scales out PostgreSQL through sharding, replication, and query parallelization.

Ever since we open sourced Citus as a Postgres extension, we have been incorporating your feedback into our database. Over the past two years, our release cycles went down from six to four to two months. As a result, we have announced 10 new Citus releases, where each release came with notable new features.

Shorter release cycles and more features came at a cost however. In particular, we added new distributed planner and executor logic to support different use cases for multi-tenant applications and real-time analytics. However, we couldn’t find the time to refactor this new logic. We found ourselves accumulating technical debt. Further, our distributed SQL coverage expanded over the past two years. With each year, we ended spending more and more time on testing each new release.

In Citus 7.4, we focused on reducing technical debt related to these items. At Citus, we track our development velocity with each release. While we fix bugs in every release, we found that a full release focused on addressing technical debt would help to maintain our release velocity. Also, a cleaner codebase leads to a happier and more productive engineering team.

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Sai Krishna Srirampur

Fun with SQL: Relocating shards on a Citus database cluster

Written byBy Sai Srirampur | February 28, 2018Feb 28, 2018

The Citus extension to Postgres allows you to shard your Postgres database across multiple nodes without having to make major changes to your SaaS application. Citus then provides performance improvements (as compared to single-node Postgres) by transforming SQL queries and distributing queries across multiple nodes, thereby parallelizing the workload. This means that a 2 node, 4 core Citus database cluster could perform 4x faster than single node Postgres.

With the Citus shard rebalancer, you can easily scale your database cluster from 2 nodes to 3 nodes or 4 nodes, with no downtime. You simply run the move shard function on the co-location group you want move shards for, and Citus takes care of the rest. When Citus moves shards, it ensures tables that are co-located stay together. This means all of your joins, say, from orders to order_items still work, just as you’d expect.

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