Citus 10 is out! New features include columnar storage & Citus on a single node—plus we’ve open-sourced the shard rebalancer. Read the Citus 10 blog.

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Jeff Davis

Citus 10 brings columnar compression to Postgres

Written byBy Jeff Davis | March 6, 2021Mar 6, 2021

Citus 10 is out! Check out the Citus 10 blog post for all the details. Citus is an open source extension to Postgres (not a fork) that enables scale-out, but offers other great features, too. See the Citus docs and the Citus github repo and README.

This post will highlight Citus Columnar, one of the big new features in Citus 10. You can also take a look at the columnar documentation. Citus Columnar can be used with or without the scale-out features of Citus.

Postgres typically stores data using the heap access method, which is row-based storage. Row-based tables are good for transactional workloads, but can cause excessive IO for some analytic queries.

Columnar storage is a new way to store data in a Postgres table. Columnar groups data together by column instead of by row; and compresses the data, too. Arranging data by column tends to compress well, and it also means that queries can skip over columns they don’t need. Columnar dramatically reduces the IO needed to answer a typical analytic query—often by 10X!

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Development on Citus first started around a decade ago and once a year we release a major new Citus open source version. We wanted to make number 10 something special, but I could not have imagined how truly spectacular this release would become. Citus 10 extends Postgres (12 and 13) with many new superpowers:

  • Columnar storage for Postgres: Compress your PostgreSQL and Citus tables to reduce storage cost and speed up your analytical queries.
  • Sharding on a single Citus node: Make your single-node Postgres server ready to scale out by sharding tables locally using Citus.
  • Shard rebalancer in Citus open source: We have open sourced the shard rebalancer so you can easily add Citus nodes and rebalance your cluster.
  • Joins and foreign keys between local PostgreSQL tables and Citus tables: Mix and match PostgreSQL and Citus tables with foreign keys and joins.
  • Functions to change the way your tables are distributed: Redistribute your tables in a single step using new alter table functions.
  • Much more: Better naming, improved SQL & DDL support, simplified operations.

These new capabilities represent a fundamental shift in what Citus is and what Citus can do for you.

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